The History of Psychology
Modern German, French, Russian and other European Influences
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) The World as Will and Representation (Excerpt, The Value of Knowledge)
Auguste Compte (1798-1857) General View of Positivism (Excerpt, The Value of Knowledge)
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894) The Facts of Perception (The Value of Knowledge) Conservation of force. (Internet History of Science Sourcebook) Treatise on physiological optics (Benjamin Backus, U. Pennsylvaina).
Hybridization (1865) illustrates
the careful observation of plants and their inherited modifications. Mendel (born in
Franz Brentano (1838-1917) Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint (Chapters 1 and 2, The Value of Knowledge)
Ernst Mach (1838–1916) The Analysis of Sensations (Chapter 1, The Value of Knowledge)
Friedrick Nietzsche's (1844-1900) Ecce Homo, Beyond Good and Evil, and Thus Spake Zarathustra (1891) (Nietzsche Pirate Page) are examples of this great thinker’s view of the human situation. Humans command the world with the force of intellect and continuing progress. “God is dead, for We have killed him.” For a time, the great musical composer Richard Wagner (1813-1883) was Nietzsche’s mentor. The young philosopher broke with his elder on the basis of Wagner’s anti-Semitism.
Wilhelm Wundt’s (1832-1920) Principles
of Physiological Psychology, and Outlines of Psychology
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Frederick Engles' (1820-1895) Communist Manifesto (1888) Marx' Capital were works which dominated the political thought of the twentieth century. Communism certainly was not a new idea but these thinkers successfully caught the imagination of many who wanted to apply the successes of science to the governing of people. Clearly, people must have rules to live by. Religion (the opiate of the people) and capitalism (the aristocracy or “big business”) have no workable or believable ethics. Thus, the people will gain ascendancy and happiness with a manager of their whole interests. All property and produce will be held in common. Morality will be the result of the majority managed by an indifferent executive.
(1850-1873) Memory: A
Contribution to Experimental Psychology (
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Archives - This is a very complete site on Freud. Among many
other things, it includes E-texts of The Interpretation of Dreams, New
Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, Outline of Psychoanalysis,
letters, and several articles on Freud. The Origin and
Development of Psychoanalysis (
Alfred Adler (1870-1937) What Life Should Mean to You (Chapter 2 – Mind and Body, The Value of Knowledge)
Mahler (1860-1911) expanded Symphonic art to an unprecedented level. He attempted to dig deeply into memory and
feeling to express his emotion in truly dramatic orchestral sound which
continues to influence modern composers.
Mahler was Austrian, like Freud, but migrated to the
Alfred Binet's (1857-1911) New Methods for the
Diagnosis of Subnormals (1905) (
Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was the significant French psychological thinker who defined the mind as “élan vital”, vital force, in his 1911 work Creative Evolution (Mead Project). Bergson sought to merge science, intuition and spirit in an explanation of human existence. This masterful writer (Nobel prize for literature in 1927) combined a compelling mix of the ineffable with rationality.
Poincaré Science and Hypothesis.
Claude Debussy (1862-1918) was the founder of the musical “Impressionist” school in which, like its artistic model in painting (here represented in an impressionist work by Claude Monet (1840-1926), broke away from classical forms and sought to create pure emotion or feeling.
La cathédrale de Rouen
La cathédrale de Rouen
Carl Jung’s (1875-1961) The Association Method
and Psychological Types
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) (Archives) developed a system of musical composition the purpose of which was to break through what he considered to be the barrier of traditional tonality. The controversial result was music that communicated the deepest of human feeling and anxiety, “expressionism”.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924) (Dave Romagnolo’s site) was one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century. His authority came from an astute understanding of social psychology and human motivation.
(1880-1943) Laws of
Perceptual Forms (
Kurt Koffka's (1886-1941) An
Introduction to the Gestalt-theorie (1922) (
Psychology Today (1959) (
Lev Semenovich Vygotsky’s (1896-1934) Thinking and Speaking (excerpts), The Historical Meaning of the Crisis in Psychology: A Methodological Investigation, The Problem of the Cultural Development of the Child, The Psychology of Art (Andy Blunden) shows this important Russian psychologist’s perspective on how language, in all of its manifestations, and cognition relate. Vygotsky relegates perception to a lesser role in the development of mentality than the development of the use of language.
Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Genetic Epistemology (Lecture 1, The Value of Knowledge) The Construction of Reality in the Child expanded the field of developmental psychology past categorizing children to qualifying their progress through the stages of maturing. Piaget studied and eloquently presented how children’s reasoning is modified by experience. He turned his insights into concrete recommendations for educating young people.
Kurt Gödel (1906- 1978) The modern development of the foundations of mathematics in the light of philosophy (The Value of Knowledge)
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